|The United Nations officially started in October 24, 1945 - by this date, the Charter (consisting of 111 articles) was ratified by China, France, Soviet Union, Great Britain, United States and a majority of other states, which signed it. Since then, October 24 of every year is celebrated as "United Nations Day".
The charter's preamble speaks about the determination of the people of the United Nations to "save future generations from the disasters of war".
The aims of the United Nations set in its Charter are to maintain international peace and safety, the prevention and elimination of a threat to peace, the suppression of acts of aggression, reconciliation or resolution of international disputes through peaceful methods, the development of friendship between the nations on the basis of respecting the equality and self-determination of people; implementation of international cooperation in economic, social, cultural and humanitarian fields, the promotion and developing respect for human rights and basic freedom for all without considering race, sex, language or religion.
Members of the United Nations have pledged to work according to the following principles: sovereign equality of nations; allowing peaceful resolutions of international disputes; refuse the use of force in international relations or its use against territorial inviolability or political freedom of any nation.
192 countries are member states of the UN.
United Nations principal organs:
* General assembly of United Nations (GA UN) - main advisory body, consists of representatives of all member states of United Nations (each of them has 1 vote);
* UN Security Council works constantly. According to the Charter, the main responsibility for maintaining international peace and security lies with the Security Council. If all the peaceful methods to resolve the conflict fail, then Security Council is competent to send the peace observers or troops to areas of conflict with an aim to reduce tension and separate the sides at war.
During the entire period of its existence, the peacekeeping forces of the UN under took around 40 peacekeeping operations.
* Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is authorized to conduct studies and compile reports on international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, human rights, ecology, etc issues and submit recommendations to the General Assembly.
* UN's International Court of Justice, principal judicial body, established in 1945, resolves legal disputes between states with their consent and gives advisory opinions on legal issues.
* UN Secretariat was created to ensure proper conditions to run the activities of organization. The Secretariat is headed by the chief administrative officer of United Nations - UN Secretary General (January 1, 2007 - Ban Ki-moon (South Korea).|