Contest Directions: Photoshop this penguins image (click to download) any way you wish. Some examples are: dressing up these penguins, placing them in some unusual environment.
You can photoshop all of these four penguins, or any of them.
These are just some ideas.
You have 3 days to submit your entry. Submitting it early will give you plenty of time to read the critique comments and edit your image accordingly.
Many thanks to Joan Koele and Stock Exchange for providing the source image.
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This contest is fueled by the following news: The relation of penguins to other birds is not clear. Some researchers suggest even to separate out penguins into a special super order or even a subclass. Penguins appeared on earth a very long ago: in the beginning of the Tertiary period, in Eocene, 60 million years ago, and maybe even earlier – i.e. at the end of the Mesozoic era. Bones of about forty fossil kinds are found. Out of them, at least seven very large penguins the same size as a man and the weight of probably around 100 to 120 kilograms.
Presently, 15-18 penguin types live on earth. All penguin types live on islands and coasts of the southern hemisphere, only the Galapagos penguin live on the equator and partially even on the northern hemisphere. Penguins and Antarctica, in our notion, are inseparable. Nevertheless, only two types of penguins dwell in Antarctica not on islands near it, but on the continent itself: the Emperor and Adelie. All penguins incubate, certainly, on land: in grass, in bushes, in dunes, among the stones and two types in burrows. Nests are pits in the earth, and some spread out along the edges of pebbles, cockleshells, leaves, bones and even in the corpses of rabbits. The King and Emperor penguins do not have nests. Penguins are colonial; hundreds of thousands and even millions of penguins are found in nested colonies.
Big penguins clutch only one egg, rock penguins often two, the majority two and very rarely three. Baby penguins are given birth with plumage all in one day after 33-62 days of the brooding period. Both parents feed the baby penguins by regurgitating food. Grown up baby penguins lose color and enter the waters without the help of adult penguins. Baby penguins start breeding only after several years. Penguins are monogamous. Both the parents can hatch or only the male penguin. For years together penguins live in monogamy. In the sea, penguins usually hunt runs. Wings of penguins are transformed into rowing flippers and feet, moved far backwards are like the rudder and the brake.
Penguins eat fish, cephalopoda mollusks and crustacea. Penguins drink sea and fresh water and swallow snow. The height of the smallest penguins is 40 cm and weight, 2 kilograms. The largest penguin is 1m in height and weighs 15 kg (King); 1.2 meter and 30- 45 kg (emperor).
Penguins live from 7 to 20 years and certain species, probably more.
“Whatever the penguins have on their skin is not similar to feathers”.
Penguins, more precisely pin-wings from the English pin-wing, — “wing-pin” — British seamen named them wingless auks. Auks have wings, though, were not suitable for flying but for swimming as in the case of penguins.
When ships reached the southern seas from Europe, seamen found penguins and named them after the popular northern birds without taking zoological subtleties of dissimilarity of those and others into consideration. At the end of the 18th century, French naturalist Buffon, to end the confusion, suggested to name the southern penguins “Manchots”. For some time the penguins were called “Macnhots”.
The “clothes” of the penguin are not suitable for a feather-bed: Down feathers are not present, only tiny “fuzzes” are present on the quill. Such fur “lining” is thin and consequently, the penguin has to have lots of fat under the skin. In large penguins, the fat thickness reaches up to 3cm. Snow storms and hurricanes in the winters in Antarctica is the climatic norm where the fatty “fur coat” is very essential. And the dense feather here helps: in snowstorms, when the wind speed touches 30 m/s not a single plume trembles on a penguin and the plumes lie smoothly, covering the bird by a dense shell. Bitter frost: outside, over Antarctica, it's about a hundred degrees colder than under the skin of the penguin! But this wonderful bird lives here and breeds!
It is warmer in the sea than on the shore. Perhaps, it is better to warm oneself there from the severe cold. By plunging the penguin does not want to be in a warm house, but still, now the temperature difference is only forty degrees. However, it is surprising: people would not sustain even ten minutes of such bathing. And penguins swim hours together in icy water. And dive into deep water (up to 10 - 20m.) Small penguins can stay under water for 2 to 3 min and big penguins for 5 to 10 minutes.
By stroking the wings at the front and top-back and downwards, penguins can almost “fly” in the water: 36kmph — quite a good speed for the swimmer. Powerful muscles on the shoulder-blades and lophosteon allow the wave stroking of the wings two to three times per second. It is not at all easy to quickly move the wings in water. It is dense, not air...
At times, having dispersed, penguins jump and float as dolphins, over sea and once again plunge. From the waters, the penguins jump onto ice in the tin soldier position vertically, and after reaching a 1 ˝ m height penguins land on both legs. Penguins do not fall even after slipping awkwardly.
On land, penguins are quite quick. Penguins can overcome the abrupt rocks by getting out onto the coast. A height of 300m, consisting of a heap of stones and rocks is an obstacle which can be negotiated.
It is hot for penguins on the coasts, especially for those which live in the subtropics of Africa and South America. They hide from the sun under the roots, in grass, in bushes and in burrows. By bristling the feathers penguins cool themselves. Penguins stretch the wings and wave.
Fish, squids, crabs and ratchets are the catch of penguins. Some prefer crustacea (asinine penguin); others — fish (black-footed penguin). In a day, a penguin eats half a kg of any fish and all its relatives near the shores of South Africa eat about 5000 tons per year. These 5000 tons costs less, than, say, the guano, which is left by the penguins on the coasts: annually 100 tons of guano is accumulated in a colony of 7000 birds. The eggs of penguins are considered a delicacy: The eggs of penguins are collected and sold in cities in the Republic of South Africa.
Penguins have very few enemies. In the sea — sharks, cowfish, leopard seals and on the coasts - seagulls, petrels, rats and stray dogs who love to steal the eggs and baby penguins.
In zoos, some types of fungal illness of the respiratory tract kill penguins. Therefore, it is recommended, as in the case of apes, to fence-off penguins with glass, then it is more difficult for the infection to reach the birds. In Edinburgh zoo, King Penguins even breed behind such transparent protection.