Contest Directions:Photoshop this image of old window (click to download) any way you wish. Some examples are: showing what scenery may lie behind this old window, re-designing this old window, putting the old window into some new environment, using this old window image in advertisements, movies, paintings, etc. These are just some ideas.
Many thanks to Remigiusz Szczerbak and
Stock Exchange for providing the source photo.
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This contest is fueled by the following news: A window is an opening, specially created in protected structures of a building during construction. Light enters into the rooms through the windows. Windows can also serve for ventilation of purposes. Windows are the main (up to 50 %) source of heat loss in buildings.
Windows as they are now were not found during the early development stages of civilization. Ancient buildings in all regions did not have windows. Till the Middle Ages, openings in walls represented simple openings, which were covered with animal skins or with a cloth. Bull bladder film, removed from an animal peritoneum, which passed light into houses, were also used for these purposes.
Windows without glass panes were used in Ancient Rome. In this case, the shape of windows remained rectangular but special decorations including stone decorations were done on the inside part of the windows. The first glass windows appeared during the Roman Empire but only well-to-do citizens could afford such a luxury.
In the XI - XIII centuries, glass blowers mastered methods of manufacturing thick-walled circular windows with a diameter of 20-30 cm, for which the molten glass was cast on metallic plates. Mica windows, made from treated mica pieces, were also used. Such windows could pass more light than the windows made from turbid thick glass.
A window is an element of wall or roof structure, meant for the natural lighting of premises, ventilation of premises, protection of premises from the atmosphere, protect a premises from noise and made with openings with slopes, window blocks, reinforcement systems for erection welds and drain and facing parts.
Double-glass panes are predominantly used in modern windows and very rarely (when heat insulation is not required), single glass panes.
Windows are distinguished according to materials from which the windows are made, with respect to design and purpose. Window frames can be manufactured from:
* Polyvinyl chloride (PVC);
* Glass-reinforced plastic (glass composite);
* A combination of materials (wood-aluminum, wood-polyvinylchloride etc)
Modern window frames have special weather strips, which reduce the heat loss through gaps in windows to a minimum; however, these weather strips are more effective if a forced ventilation system is available in the house. In the absence of similar window systems, it is desirable to use aeration systems, which regulate the flow of air.
Characteristics and structure:
Window structures protect the premises from dampness, dust, noise and also from other negative factors. Depending upon the material, from which the window structure is made, the window possess various characteristics with respect to heat insulation properties, noise insulation, durability, ecological compatibility and protection from atmospheric effects.
Modern windows have a sufficiently complex design, consisting of the following elements:
* Window profile (window casing and sash);
* Inner filling (double glass pane or PVC plate);
* Weather strip system (sealing of sash, casing, glass pane)
* Fittings (locking elements, window handles, decorative strips on loops)
Two variants of window openings exist:
1. A window opening with an external rabbet
2. A window opening without internal rabbet
Since ancient times, windows were considered as decorative element of the building, with equal importance to windows along with doors. Sometimes (such an approach is encountered even now, for example, in bathrooms) windows with special colored or translucent glasses with figures drawn on them were used.
The shapes of windows are also varied. Arched windows are typical for medieval temples and for classical tradition, moving from Palladius- Wyatt windows: thermal or Italian.
What windows are made of:
Molded from wood, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), glass-reinforced plastic, steel or aluminium, or a combination of these.
Cut blanks are joined by mechanical methods or welding into window elements. As a rule, a set of window profiles, making a "profile system" is required to manufacture windows.