|Mushrooms are increasingly used in industrial applications these days.
In terms of microbiological synthesis production of citric acid is widely common.
Negative effects associated with breeding and development of mushrooms.
Several must mushrooms significantly decrease harvest and can adversely affect cattle’ health.
A good many various pathogenic mushrooms are known to induce deceases in plants, cattle and humans.
Mushrooms, damaging wood induce quick destruction of timber-based material and items hence they are considered in forest fito pathology as pathogenic.
All mushrooms are heterotrophic organisms. Mushrooms can absorb mineral substances
from environment, though they should receive organic substances ready-made.
Versus needs of requirements of substance, one or another mushroom populates certain substratum. Mushrooms can not absorb large parts of food, hence they imbibe only liquids through full surface of their body, in this case large area of mycelium is quite useful.
Significant in mushroom’s digestion is that it is external, i.e. ferments are first discharged into the environment consisting of nutrient materials which externally disintegrate these ferments up to easily digestible monomers – cytoplasm. Several mushrooms are able to discharge all main types of digestive ferments – protease, which disintegrates proteins; lipase which disintegrate fats and carbohydrates, which disintegrates polysaccharides; hence they are able to live in any substratum. Other mushrooms exude only certain classes of ferments and populate substratum, containing respective substances
Patricipation types of mushrooms in biocenosis
Depending upon the ability to feed on organic materials mushrooms can be
aulophyte, parasites and sapotrophics.
* Aulophytes take part in mutually beneficial relations with plants in mycorhiza form. In this relation mushrooms get necessary organic compounds (mainly carbohydrates and amino-acids), and plants, in their turn, get inorganic substances. Visible representatives of mushrooms with mycorhiza forms are basidiomycetes from Boletaceae family and Amanitaceae (majority of types) family.
Late blight affected bulb of potato.
* Hosts of parasitic mushrooms most often are seed plants but can also be animals, and also can be other types of mushrooms. For absorbing substances from host’s cells on hyphas of parasitic mushrooms often formed are the haustorium, which are side branches of hypha penetrated into host. Parasites penetrate into host’s body through small cracks in its coatings, and parasites of plants use for this purpose natural holes in epidermis – air pore.
While growing mushroom discharges ferments destroying middle plates between plant cells
(pectinase), consequently textures softens. Some parasites limit themselves by regularly only sucking off substances from the host but don’t kill him, but others discharge ferments which disintegrate cellulose of cellular wall which kills the plant, and later parasite feeds on organic material of the host. Some mushrooms are parasites in specific cases. For instance, it is known that some types of mushrooms, which are saprotrophic but can live on weakened organisms (usually seed plants), and later on takes up parasite way of life. When host dies they continue living on him like saprotrophic and absorb organic substances of the plant where they recently parasitized.
Mushrooms, capable of leading only parasitic way of life, are called obligates.
Patterns which are able to occasionally change from sapotrophic to parasitic are called secondary parasites. While obligate parasites don’t kill the host, because they may die themselves, secondary parasites may kill the host and continue living on its dead remains.
* Sapotrophics discard organic ferments of dead organisms. Along with sapotrophic bacteria, sapotrophics compile a set of decomposers - essential link in trophic chain of any biocenosis.
Examples of those mushrooms are - penicillium, mucor, yeast and many others.