|Lavatory bowl is a sanitary fitting, arranged in toilets and equipped with automatic or semi-automatic flushing system. Usually, a flushing toilet is manufactured from sanitary ceramics. Design, similar to modern flushing toilet, was for the first time found in China approximately in I BC. In Europe, similar facility, for the first time appeared in Great Britain during the Victorian Era.
In 1974, publishing house “McGraw Hill” released a facsimile edition of two books with working notes and the drafts of Leonardo Da Vinci. Facility, distantly resembling flushing toilet, was sketched on one of the sheets. Previously, it was regarded that, Sir John Harrington, godson of British Queen Elizabeth, was the inventor of similar device and in 1569, he stated it in satiric book “Metamorphosis of Ajax”. For his book, Sir John Harrrington was excluded from the court and was asked to leave for his estate. Similar facility was developed in Kelston.
Only in the year 1775, the first patent for the flushing toilet with valve means flushing system, was given to British watchmaker А. Cumming. Patent for mechanism with ball float, which automatically measures subsequent water portion in the cistern after flushing, was handed over to Britisher T. Crapper in the beginning of XIX century. T. Crapper manufactured plumbing fittings (installers).
For a long while the flushing toilet device was considered an expensive luxury and was not mass produced until the second half of the century.
Modern flushing toilets have the following features:
Suspension (wall-mounted) or low-ground variants are available;
Low-ground lavatory bowls are divided into lavatory bowls with cisterns (compact lavatory bowls), free-standing, lavatory bowls with complete joining to wall (attached), Genoa bowls (or Turkey lavatory bowls);
Manufactured from porcelain, which practically do not absorb moisture and hence considered more hygienic;
Flushing 6 litrs of water. Variants are available with double flushing (3 & 6ltrs) and also with discontinuous flushing. Mechanical (button) and electronic (contact-free) discharge systems;
Height of flushing toilet device constitutes 400 mm;
Lavatory bowls are manufactured with horizontal, vertical or inclined or siphon (American type) flush;
Flushing toilets are manufactured with lower, side or rear water supply into the cisterns;
Bowls have specific requirements to flushing quality. In particular, paper and model feces flush effectiveness and also degree of cleansing the inner surfaces of toilet are determined;
According to the same standards, toilet bowl should withstand 200 kg static load. However, modern manufacturers of flushing toilets claim that their bowls withstand up to 400 kg of load (including the suspended lavatory bowls). Some even claim that the toilet bowls, manufactured by them, possess fourfold reserve (up to 800 kg);
Suspension flushing toilets give an impression about the presence of concealed cistern or flush system without cistern in the wall. In the last case, washout is accomplished through water from the supply line without accumulation in cistern;
Toilet bowls are offered with additional glazing properties: Antibacterial (with silver addition) and anti dirt (water-repellent glaze);
Most technologically advanced toilet bowls can: Remove odor, accomplish automatic washout, warm-up the seat, rinse ( as in the case of bidet) and dry with dryer.|