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|Missiles are essentially rocket weapons, explosives delivered to a target by missiles — the pilot-less aircraft equipped with a jet engine; various missile systems designed for the defeat of land, air or sea targets. The missile has an extremely wide range of functional use and, as a result, various design features (from portable missiles to complex missile systems and systems of all types and purposes).
The main characteristics are the range (minimum and maximum), the size and military unit type (high-explosive, shrapnel, incendiary, three-detonating, chemical, bacteriological, nuclear), the accuracy of hit, type of control system, the engine type, the speed of flight, the weight, the dimensions and the class.
In modern wars they started to be used commonly the during the Second World War. Originally designed for launching from planes (in fights at the Hasan lake and at Halkhin-Gole), afterwards it moved to land launchers. The Soviet and German armies used launchers of volley fire on Katyusha and Nebelwerfer in large quantities and with great success. Rocket launchers of volley fire have been also adopted by the armies of Great Britain and the USA.
The first ballistic missiles, Fau-2, were used by the German party to attack the cities of Great Britain and Belgium.
But missiles were widely used especially after the Second World War, having strongly pressed (here and there even having displaced) gun artillery, shooting weapons and aviation.
Structure of rocket systems:
The complex (systems) of the missile consist of;
missiles – the carriers of ammunition equipped with guidance facilities on board (guidance to the target);
launching (starting) pads;
facilities of maintenance, transportation and storage.
Missiles are classified as follows: "surface-to-surface", "surface-to-air", "air–to-surface", "air-to-air", "air-to- ship" etc.
Missiles of the "surface-to-surface" class are also classified by purpose: tactical, theatre-of-war, and strategic. As a rule "surface-to-surface" missiles are divided into categories by range (that is short range, medium range etc.) abroad. "Surface-to-surface" missiles are ballistic or cruise.
The fighting missile can be classified by parameters as follows:
Type of air force related — land forces, marine troops, air forces;
flight range(from the point of launching to the target) — intercontinental (launching range — more than 5500 km), medium range (1000-5500 km), theatre-of-war range (300 — 1000 km), tactical range (less than 300 km);
environment of application - from the place of launching (surface, air, above water, submarine, sub-glacial);
way of basing — fixed, mobile;
nature of flight — ballistic, aero ballistic (with wings), submarine;
flight environment — air, submarine, space;
type of control — managed, unmanaged;
target — anti-tank (anti-tank missiles), anti-aircraft (anti-aircraft missile), anti-ship, anti-radar, anti-space, anti-submarine (against submarines).
The different classification of missiles by flight range is applied in some international agreements.
Anti-aircraft guided missile (AGM) — a missile of "surface-to-air" class which is a part of an Anti-aircraft Rocket System, intended for defeat of air targets: planes, helicopters, dirigibles, balloons, various missiles, pilotless aircrafts, fighting blocks of ballistic missiles, artillery and aviation ammunition.
Missiles are classified by type of basing, range and height of defeat, the maximum speed of the designated targets, launching principles. There are missiles with liquid and solid propellant engines.
The anti-aircraft guided missile consists of:
Airframe, which structure includes a fuselage and plumage (rudders and stabilizers),
Sources of air blow - and power supply,
Equipment for guiding or reception of radio commands,
Contact and non-contact detonators,
Warhead (fragmental and high-explosive or special).
By type of control:
radio command control,
guiding by radio beam,
combined scheme of control.
By aerodynamic scheme:
normal (stabilizers are ahead, rudders are behind) and its subspecies — tailless (the stabilizer "accreted" with rudder);
duck (rudders are ahead, stabilizers are behind);
bearing cone (conic fuselage with rudders at the back part);
Anti-aircraft missiles can be applied in both in fixed, mobile and portable missile systems.
Rheintochter missiles, Hs-117 "Schmetterling " and " Wasserfall " were the first ever anti-aircraft guided missiles created 1943 in Germany (the last one was tested and ready for mass production at the beginning 1945, but it was not started).
In 1944 the USA started the small-scale production of anti-aircraft guided missiles KAN-1 (with radio command system of guiding), restrictedly applied in battles for Okinawa.
The “air-to-surface” (“air-to-land”) missile is the guided aviation missile designed for the defeat of targets on the surface of the earth, water, and also deep objects.|