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This contest is fueled by the following news: A male New Zealander with no arms pleaded not guilty to dangerous driving after a police officer stopped him and alleged he was speeding on a major highway. The police officer stopped the car also observed that the driver had the seat deeply inclined and that the driver had his foot up on the dashboard of the auto. After making this observation, the police officer saw the driver, 31 year old Colin Smith, more closely. He realized that Smith lacked arms. Smith apparently told the policeman that he had been driving with his feet for years without incident. Smith admitted that he did not have a drivers license. Smith apparently has been steering with one leg and foot and working the gas and brake pedals with the other foot in the standard automobile. Smith initially was pulled over by the police from going 121 kilometers per hour in a 100 kilometer per hour zone.
Foot (Latin- pes ) - Distal (terminal) a portion of the limb in plantigrade quadrupeds, is an arch, which has direct contact with the earth's surface and acts as a support for the leg while standing and during movement.
The Human's foot:
The human's foot is the terminal portion of the lower limb. The part of the foot, which has direct contact with the earth's surface, is called the base or sole and the upper side, opposite to it, is the dorsal side of the foot. The foot, as a whole, has an arched structure, is mobile and possesses flexibility and elasticity due to the presence of joints. According to bone structure, the foot is divided into tarsal, metatarsal and phalangeal parts.
External morphology of the human foot:
The external morphology of the foot reflects the bony structure and is divided into the forefoot, mid foot and hind foot. In the forefoot, the five toes can be differentiated and from the side of the sole - the foot pad, foot arch belongs to the mid foot and the hind foot – forms the heel from the side of the sole.
The arch is that part of the foot which normally does not touch the ground and forms the foot elevation from the dorsal side. The raised part of the arch is formed by five metatarsal bones, found in the foot corpus, the external extensions of these bones form fingers and are called phalanges. The foot pad is in the lowermost part of the arch before the fingers and protects the joints from impacts. The terminal phalanges of man, similar to the fingers of the hand, are called the big toe (hallux) and the little toe and the remaining three are called II, III IV, starting from the big toe. The general portion of the arch and heel is called the tarsal and the fingers with fat pads - toes.
The skin of the sole is thick, rough, without hair and is rich in sudoriferous glands. The skin of the dorsal surface is elastic, moves easily, therefore during any inflammatory processes; the oedema appears on the dorsum. The surface of the sole, only partially, produces and reflects the bony structure lying underneath it. This happens due to the presence of a large number of fat pads on the foot surface, which is covered by thick skin. The oval shape of the small pads is formed by the plantar endings of the toes. Their appearance is associated due to the presence of fat pads on the sole, with the help of which, they come in contact (when fingers are not stretched on the sides) through the transverse border of the foot. The big toe pad is flatter, wide and is separated from the feet by a clear cut fold. The big toe is separated from others by a deep raphe, it is topped by a strong fingernail and the toe axis is displaced a little sideways. The big finger lies flat while other fingers have an arched structure. The length of the fingers gradually decreases from the big to little finger. Sometimes, the second finger appears to be the longest.
In people, foot types are distinguished depending on the length of the fingers: "Greek type" - big and third fingers are longer than the second finger; "Egyptian type" – when the big finger is the longest; "Roman type" - all fingers are approximately identical in length. The" Greek type" of foot structure with a long second finger was always considered to be the law for ancient sculptors. In all cases, the edge of the foot has a perfect arch form.
In the posterior part, the sole has a flattened shape at the connection place with the heel anteriorly, and also from the sides and according to the approach towards the fingers. At the edges, the sole becomes convex shaped and is connected to the mid foot.
Fatty tissue, protecting the bones from outside pressure is found in the areas serving as support for the bones: on the heel, on the metatarsal heads, on the ungal phalanges between the bones and the external sheath. The fat pad, also known as the footpad, is found at the level of metatarsal heads along the transversal edge. A deep fold draws the anterior plantar surface of the fingers, interrupted by inter-digital spaces. From here, the fingers seem shorter from the side of the sole compared to the size from the dorsal side. The dorsal side of the fingers facilitates in studying the width of the phalangeal joints, some number of transverse skin folds and the short nail plates. The anterior and posterior parts of the foot are joined into a uniform kinematic chain by a strong elastic tendon - the plantar fascia. The plantar fascia, like a spring, restores the arch of the foot spread under weight. The plantar fascia is attached on one side to the calcaneus tubercule and on the other side to the distal part of the metatarsal bones.
Therefore, the skeleton, muscles and other soft tissues give the foot its form, which, depending on the individual, age and sex can have either a clearly expressed structural type (thin adult man's feet), or a type in which the structure is flattened (young woman's feet), or a type in which the structure is not well expressed (child's feet).